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David Cutler — 2016 CHM Fellow
 
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CHM honors David Cutler for his fundamental contributions to computer architecture, compilers, operating systems and software engineering. Learn about Cutler’s life and career in this original CHM production. Visit computerhistory.org to learn more about the Computer History Museum Fellow Awards. For over 25 years, the Computer History Museum Fellow Awards have honored distinguished technology pioneers for their outstanding merits and significant contributions to the advancement of computer history and evolution of the Information Age. The Fellow Awards are an extension of the Computer History Museum’s overarching vision to explore the computing revolution and its impact on the human experience.
The Art of Writing Software
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" Software is more than obscure computer code. It’s an art form: a meticulously-crafted literature that enables complex conversations between humans and machines. From FORTRAN to sophisticated programs in use today, discover the technology, creativity, hard work, and technique behind these elegant languages. Software pioneers share their stories. Catalog Number: 102695613 Lot Number: X6142.2011
Views: 480394 Computer History Museum
The Babbage Difference Engine #2 at CHM
 
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[Recorded: July 23, 2012] In development with Microsoft Research, CHM produced this video of Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine #2 (no longer on display). This video also appears in the @CHM blog post: http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/lit-shot-and-gigapixeled/. Catalog Number: 102717236 Lot Number: X7288.2015
1401: The Dawn of a New Era
 
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The IBM 1401, a medium-sized business computer introduced in 1959, became IBM's biggest selling computer of the early 1960s. By 1965, nearly half of all computers in the world were IBM 1401s. This success was fostered by IBM developing a system that preserved customers' existing investment in punched card business methods while allowing for a transition to newer methods of electronic, digital, stored program computing. The film unveils the history of this popular computer, based, in part, on interviews with its original designers. In its second half, the film covers the IBM 1401 Restoration Project at the Computer History Museum, in which a team of former IBM computing specialists spent a decade restoring two vintage IBM 1401 systems. The systems are now publicly demonstrated on a regular basis at the Computer History Museum. Lot Number: X7011.2014
The Electronic Coach
 
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[Recorded: circa 1959] "The Electronic Coach" is a short film made by IBM describing the use of computers in the management of a university basketball team. The film features computer science legend Don Knuth, then a junior at Case Institute of Technology. For all four of his undergraduate years at Case (1956-60), Knuth was manager of the basketball team and sought ways to improve his team's play by analyzing a series of special statistics he captured during games. The scoring method was unusual in the weightings it gave to activities not necessarily associated with traditional coaching but Knuth's insights into basketball, combined with his computerization of the reams of data he collected, helped Case's coaching staff make their basketball team a winner. The computer used is an IBM 650.
An Analog Life: Remembering Jim Williams
 
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CHM produced video produced for the exhibit "An Analog Life: Remembering Jim Williams." This video features interviews with Steve Pietkiewicz, Bob Swanson, Fran Hoffart, Tony Bonte, Bob Dobkin, Alan Chern, Bob Reay, Lothar Maier, and Paul Rako. Catalog Number: 102746468 Lot Number: X6653.2013
40th Anniversary of the Net - October 29, 1969
 
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On the evening of October 29, 1969 the first data travelled between two nodes of the ARPANET, a key ancestor of the Internet. Even more important, this was one of the first big trials of a then-radical idea: Networking computers to each other. The men who symbolically turned the key on the connected world we know today were two young programmers, Charley Kline at UCLA and Bill Duvall at SRI in Northern California, using special equipment made by BBN in Cambridge, Massachussetts.
False Dawn: The Babbage Engine
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" Charles Babbage (1791-1871), computer pioneer, designed the first automatic computing engines. He invented computers but failed to build them. The first complete Babbage Engine was completed in London in 2002, 153 years after it was designed. Difference Engine No. 2, built faithfully to the original drawings, consists of 8,000 parts, weighs five tons, and measures 11 feet long. Catalog Number: 102695004 Lot Number: X6142.2011
Xerox Parc - Office Alto Commercial
 
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[May 14, 1979] In this short one-minute commercial, Xerox introduces its vision for the office of the future. Years ahead of its time, the 1972 Xerox Alto featured Ethernet networking, a full page display, a mouse, laser printing, e-mail, and a windows-based user interface. Although it's high price limited sales, the Alto was a groundbreaking invention and the inspiration for the Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems. Catalog Number: 102746224 (digital) Catalog Number: 102639652 (tape)
Views: 117776 Computer History Museum
Margaret Hamilton - 2017 CHM Fellow
 
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The Computer History Museum honors Margaret Hamilton for her leadership and work on software for DOD and NASA's Apollo space missions and for fundamental contributions to software engineering. For over 25 years, the Computer History Museum Fellow Awards have honored distinguished technology pioneers for their outstanding merits and significant contributions to the advancement of computer history and evolution of the Information Age. The Fellow Awards are an extension of the Computer History Museum’s overarching vision to explore the computing revolution and its impact on the human experience. Lot number: X8299.2018 Catalog number: 102740202
Digital Dark Age
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" Imagine a future where humans are unable to access the data, literature, art, photographs, discoveries, and vital records of previous generations. That bleak future may be on the horizon! Learn how our fragile, rapidly obsolete systems of storing data could lead to a digital dark age. Catalog Number: 102695601 Lot Number: X6142.2011
The Silicon Engine
 
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[Recorded May 1, 2009] The powerful and ubiquitous silicon chips that run the computers, smart phones and even the cars and appliances we use daily all spring from the transistor. That breakthrough invention later became the building blocks of the integrated circuit (IC), which later still blossomed into the semiconductors and microprocessors that have reshaped our modern lives. This video presents an overview of the 60-year history of innovation, invention and development that took us from vacuum tubes to modern microprocessors and was created in May 2009 for the Computer History Museum's Silicon Engine exhibit. To provide YouTube viewers with the same visual experience as seen in person at the museum, this video is presented in its three-screen layout. You can learn about the history of transistors, semiconductors and microprocessors at the Computer History Museums Silicon Engine web exhibit: http://www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/
Ernst Dickmanns’ VaMoRs Mercedes Van, 1986-2003
 
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This video appears in the Computer History Museum exhibit “Where To? A History of Autonomous Vehicles," 2014. Ernst Dickmanns’ laboratory substantially pioneered practical self-driving technology; this van tested three generations of systems. Dickmanns’ 1993 VaMP Mercedes sedan would cover thousands of miles in traffic at up to 110 mph as part of the massive Eureka PROMETHEUS project. For more information about this exhibit, please visit: http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/where-to-a-history-of-autonomous-vehicles/. Credit: © Ernst D. Dickmanns. All rights reserved. Object Number: 500003288 Resource Number: R0324.2015
GitHub CEO on Learning to Code and Dropping Out of College
 
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GitHub CEO Chris Wanstrath shares how he taught himself to code and how his passion for programming caused him to fail out of college.
Colossus: Breaking the Code
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" The ability to send secret, encoded communications led to ruthless devastation by Nazi troops early in WWII. Allied mathematicians and engineers rushed to build a machine capable of breaking the codes. Here we pay tribute to “Colossus” for helping to end the war and begin the age of computing. Catalog Number: 102695598 Lot Number: X6142.2011
391 San Antonio—A Semiconductor Documentary
 
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Silicon Valley is known worldwide as the global center of high tech innovation. In large part, the spark that ignited Silicon Valley's explosive growth can be traced back to a 50 year-old dispute that occurred in the building at 391 San Antonio Road, Mountain View, California. In the 1950s William Shockley was considered a "God" in the electronics world. He led the Bell Labs team that invented the transistor in 1948. With funding from Arnold Beckman -- a wealthy scientist-businessman -- Shockley established the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1955. Shockley went against Beckman's recommendation to set up in southern California, near Beckman's own company, and established the lab in a former Quonset hut at 391 San Antonio. Shockley's disruptive management style eventually forced eight of his young scientists to approach Arnold Beckman directly in an attempt to remove Shockley from day-to-day management. When their bid fails, the group feels they have burned their bridges and must find alternative employment. Through an East Coast banker, the scientists are introduced to Sherman Fairchild, a New York industrialist. He is intrigued by the potential of silicon transistors and agrees to support the group with an investment of $1.3 million to start a new company called Fairchild Semiconductor. In Silicon Valley lore, the dissenting scientists became known as the Traitorous Eight - some of whom went on to bigger and better things. Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore founded Intel in 1968, now the world's largest chipmaker. More than 400 electronics, computer and chip companies in Silicon Valley can trace their genealogy back to the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory at 391 San Antonio Road. Through interviews with historians and surviving former employees of Shockley Labs, filmmaker Craig Addison recounts the events that indirectly led to the explosive growth of Silicon Valley. The Computer History Museum thanks Craig Addison for making this film available. Lot Number: X5262.2009
Who Invented the Computer?
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" There are more than a dozen legitimate contenders to consider, all designers of unique, remarkable machines. But with facts and timelines clouded by controversy, contradictions, and intrigue, debate has raged in courtrooms and classrooms for decades. The answer may surprise you. Catalog Number: 102695599 Lot Number: X6142.2011
Views: 156525 Computer History Museum
Myhrvold & Swade Discuss Babbage's Difference Engine
 
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[Recorded May 1, 2008] Charles Babbage (1791-1871), computer pioneer, designed the first automatic computing engines. He invented computers but failed to build them. Babbage's designs for his vast mechanical calculating engines rank as one of the startling achievements of the 19th century and are monumental in logical conception, physical size, and intricacy. The first complete Babbage Engine was constructed in London in 2002, more than 150 years after it was designed by Babbage in the 1840's. The building of a second copy of Babbage's Difference Engine No.2 was commissioned by Nathan Myhrvold. Exhibited for the first time in North America at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, this Babbage Difference Engine No. 2 is a stunning display of Victorian mechanics and an arresting spectacle of automatic computing. The Engine consists of 8,000 parts of bronze, cast iron and steel, weighs five tons and measures eleven feet long and seven feet high. In this lecture and discussion, Nathan Myhrvold and Doron Swade discuss Charles Babbage, his life and times, the importance of his work, and why they are passionate about bringing this startling display of elegant design and inspired engineering to the world. They are joined in the discussion by Len Shustek, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Computer History Museum.
Navigating Knowledge: Hypertext Pioneers
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" As the volume of world knowledge became too vast any one person to know or catalog, a passion to organize, cross-reference, and share information arose in the hearts of some visionary technologists. Discover the ideas, inventions, broken dreams, and altruistic visions that led to today’s hypertext world. Catalog Number: 102695606 Lot Number: X6142.2011
The Atanasoff-Berry Computer In Operation
 
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[Recorded: 1999] The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) occupies a special place in the history of computing in part for its technical accomplishments but also for being at the center of a landmark legal case. It was built by Iowa physics professor John Vincent Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry. Technically, the ABC was an electronic equation solver. It could find solutions to systems of simultaneous linear equations with up to 29 unknowns, a type of problem encountered in Atansasoff's physics work. Construction of the ABC began in 1938 at Iowa State College (now University) in Ames, Iowa. It was about the size of a large desk, weighed 750 lbs, computed 0.06 operations per second (sustained) and had 0.37 KB of memory. It could also do 30 add/subtract operations per second. While not a computer in the modern sense (since it did not store its own program), it pioneered various techniques in digital computer design including binary arithmetic, parallel processing, and electronic (vacuum tube) switching elements. The device was completed in 1942 and worked, although its spark-gap printer mechanism needed further development. The legal dimension to the ABC story involves a lawsuit between two computer makers, Honeywell and Sperry-Rand. In 1967, Honeywell sued Sperry over their ENIAC patents using the ABC as evidence of prior art. (ENIAC was an early digital electronic calculator completed in 1946). After years of proceedings, on October 19, 1973 the judge in the case, Earl R. Larson, agreed with Honeywell that some of the ideas in the ENIAC, which had been considered the 'world's first computer,' in fact came from Atanasoff during a four-day visit ENIAC designer John Mauchly made to Atanasoff at Iowa State before ENIAC was designed. There was also months of correspondence between the two in which Mauchly expressed his desire to build a similar device. The net result of this judgment was that no one owned the patent on the computer: it was free to be developed by all. Gordon Bell has called this the 'dis-invention of the computer.' In 1993, Iowa State University began a historically-accurate reconstruction of the ABC, which it finished in 1997. The project cost $360,000 and involved about a dozen people in its realization. This film shows the ABC Reconstruction in operation, solving a simple algebra problem.
CHM Revolutionaries: The Art & Technology Behind Google Doodles
 
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[Recorded: August 8, 2012] Doodles are the fun, surprising and sometimes spontaneous changes that are made to the Google logo to celebrate holidays, anniversaries and the lives of famous artists, pioneers and scientists. In 1998, before the company was even incorporated, the concept of the doodle was born when Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin played with the corporate logo to indicate their attendance at the Burning Man festival in the Nevada desert. Two years later, in 2000, Larry and Sergey asked an intern to produce a doodle for Bastille Day which was so well received by users that a chief doodler was appointed, and doodles started showing up more and more regularly on the Google homepage. Over time, the demand for doodles has risen in the US and internationally. Creating doodles is now the responsibility of a team of talented illustrators (called doodlers) and engineers. For them, creating doodles has become a group effort to enliven the Google homepage and bring smiles to the faces of Google users around the world. You will meet members of the doodle team and get a behind-the-scenes look at their creative process. They discussed how technology's evolution has enabled them to create more beautiful and highly interactive doodles, and the challenge that brings to the technical members of the team. You will also find out about possible risks and rewards involved when one's "canvas" is viewed by millions worldwide.
CHM Revolutionaries: An Evening with Elon Musk
 
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[Recorded: January 22, 2013] "I could either watch it happen or be part of it." Elon Musk on joining the Internet Revolution "If you had a chance to go back in time and work with Howard Hughes when he was creating TWA, if you had a chance to be there at that moment when it was the dawn of a brand new era, wouldn't you want to do that? That's why I'm here." Dr. Garrett E. Reisman NASA Astronaut (former) and Senior Engineer, SpaceX On CBS' 60 Minutes March 16, 2012 Elon Musk is living two ultimate boyhood fantasies: creating a sports car company and a rocket launch corporation. As co-founder of PayPal, Musk helped transform payment online systems and then, like a true revolutionary, set his sights on electric cars and space transport. Today Elon Musk is CEO of both Tesla Motors and SpaceX. He also serves as chairman of SolarCity, the solar power provider. In 2008, Musk was named as one of the 75 most influential people of the 21st century by Esquire magazine and one year later, the National Space Society awarded Musk their Von Braun Trophy, given for leadership of the most significant achievement in space. In 2010, Musk was the youngest recipient of the Auto Executive of the Year Innovator Award and was listed as one of Time Magazine's 100 of the World's Most Influential People. His life story was the inspiration for the Iron Man movies about an executive turned space hero. Join Alison van Diggelen of Fresh Dialogues for a lively conversation with Elon Musk about what inspired his entrepreneurial journey from South Africa to Silicon Valley; the lessons he learned at PayPal, Tesla Motors, SpaceX and SolarCity; and how he manages to lead two ground-breaking companies simultaneously. Why does he believe that electric cars are a vital component in the move away from oil to a more sustainable energy economy? And what is behind his fascination with creating a multiplanetary future for mankind, including a self-sustaining base on Mars?
Views: 165499 Computer History Museum
Ted Nelson's Eulogy for Douglas Engelbart
 
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[Recorded: Dec 9, 2013] Ted Nelson's emotional and moving eulogy for his friend Douglas Engelbart. Given at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA, on December 9, 2013.
Remington-Rand Presents the Univac
 
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UNIVAC is one of the earliest commercial computers and was easily the most famous computer of the 1950s. This film, produced between 1950 and 1952, shows how the UNIVAC computer was used in business, defense and by the census. The film shows several of the important portions of the UNIVAC system at work, including the high-speed printer, the UNISERVO tape drive, the UNITYPER, card readers and the mercury delay line tanks that served as main memory. The programming process is fully discussed and a business problem is demonstrated. These films served a promotional film as well as a way to demystify computers to the average person.
1963 Timesharing: A Solution to Computer Bottlenecks
 
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[Recorded: May 9, 1963] This vintage film features MIT Science Reporter John Fitch at the MIT Computation Center in an extended interview with MIT professor of computer science Fernando J. Corbato. The film was co-produced by WGBH (Boston) and MIT. The prime focus of the film is timesharing, one of the most important developments in computing, and one which has come in and out of favor several times over the last several decades as the dichotomy between remote and centrally-managed computing resources played out; the latest incarnation for centrally-managed computing resources is known as cloud computing. Timesharing as shown in this film, was a novel concept in the early 1960s. Driven by a desire to more efficiently use expensive computer resources while increasing the interactivity between user and computer (man and machine), timesharing was eventually taken up by industry in the form of special timesharing hardware for mainframe and minicomputer computer systems as well as in sophisticated operating systems to manage multiple users and resources. Corbato describes how after the mid-1950s, when computers began to become reliable, the next big challenge to improve productivity and efficiency was the development of computer languages, FORTRAN being an example. One of the next bottlenecks in computing, according to Corabto, was the traditional batch processing method of combining many peoples computer jobs into one large single job for the computer to process at one time. He compares batch processing to a group of people catching a bus, all being moved at once. Timesharing, on the other hand, involves attaching a large number of consoles to the central computer, each of which is given a time-slice of the computers time. While the computer is rapidly switching among user applications and problems, it appears to the user that s/he has complete access to the central computer. Corbato then describes in technical detail a complex description of timesharing before showing some examples of timesharing from a terminal using a simple program to calculate a simple geometric problem (Pythagorean theorem). In the long run, Corbato says, timesharing will help address the increasing need for computer time and ease-of-use.
The Cray Way
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" Seymour Cray, father of supercomputing, was a quiet man from Wisconsin who lived where he wanted to live, worked how he needed to work, challenged bureaucracy when it hindered progress, and, when necessary, humbly started over. His dogged persistence and staggering genius resulted in the fastest computers on earth. Catalog Number: 102695603 Lot Number: X6142.2011
When Computers Changed the World from the Revolution Exhibition
 
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"When Computers Changed the World" is just one of more than 100 videos in the Computer History Museum's new exhibition: "Revolution: the First 2000 Years of Computing." In the span of a single lifetime, computers have gone from large, incredibly expensive and rare devices to small, low-cost, ubiquitous tools that we can't imagine living without. Yet, few people know the history of how this came to be. Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing is a rich, multimedia exhibition that traces the history of modern computing. It begins with ancient efforts to make math easier and extends through to the modern marvels of hand-held devices and the Web. Revolution tells the stories of computing history in 19 galleries. Each gallery is a themed mini-exhibition that covers a particular aspect of the evolution of computing. Within each gallery is an icon—a distinguished artifact that represents and introduces the topic. In all, more than 1,100 objects, some rare and one-of-a-kind, are displayed. Revolution immerses visitors in the sights and sounds of the computer revolution through vivid graphics, hands-on displays, period settings, machine demonstrations, and more than 100 video, audio, and touch-screen stations. See the Revolution Exhibition at the Computer History Museum in Silicon Valley, California. Visitor information can be found at www.computerhistory.org/visit or on Facebook at facebook.com/ComputerHistory and on Twitter @computerhistory. Or visit Revolution Online at www.computerhistory.org/revolution
DEC: Digital from the Beginning
 
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This video appears in the Computer History Museum exhibition “Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing," 2011. Catalog Number: 102695721
Fairchild Briefing on Integrated Circuits
 
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[Recorded: October, 1967] This half hour color promotional/educational film on the integrated circuit was produced and sponsored by Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation and first shown on television on October 11, 1967. In the film, Dr. Harry Sello and Dr. Jim Angell describe the integrated circuit (IC), discuss its design and development process, and offer examples of late 1960s uses of IC technology. Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation was one of the most influential early high-tech companies. Founded in Palo Alto California in 1957 by eight scientists and engineers from Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation was funded by Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation of Syossett, New York. Rapidly establishing itself as a technology innovator based on its invention of the planar manufacturing process in 1959, the company developed the first monolithic integrated circuit, the first CMOS device, and numerous other technical and business innovations. French oil field services company Schlumberger Limited purchased Fairchild in 1979 and sold a much weakened business to National Semiconductor in 1987. In 1997 National divested a group, formed as the present Fairchild Semiconductor, in a leveraged buy-out. The company re-emerged as a public entity based in South Portland, Maine in 1999 under the corporate name Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. Fairchild Semiconductor presented its new products and technologies with an entrepreneurial style, and its early manufacturing and marketing techniques helped give Californias Santa Clara County a new name: Silicon Valley. It was one of the early forerunners of what would become a worldwide high-tech industry, as evidenced in this short promotional film. Catalog Number: 102651800 Lot Number: X3929.2007
Views: 165167 Computer History Museum
Roots of Microsoft
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" In 1975, two young hackers, united by a passion for computers, set out to share their obsession with the world. Bill Gates and Paul Allen reminisce about the modest beginnings and hobbyist roots of the company that grew to be global industry giant Microsoft. Catalog Number: 102695605 Lot Number: X6142.2011
In Your Defense: The SAGE System
 
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The SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) System, was designed and built in the 1950s to defend against the threat of Soviet bombers attacking the continental United States. The system was much influenced by the design of MIT's Whirlwind II computer system (which was never completed). IBM designed and built the AN/FSQ-7 computer, the heart of the SAGE program, with companies such as Western Electric (who produced In Your Defense), The Mitre Corporation and System Development Corporation were also major contractors on the project. There were more than twenty SAGE installations located across North America linking hundreds of radar stations, Air Force fighter wings, and missle defense sites in the first large-scale computer communications network. The SAGE network was decentralized and would allow a unit to continue operation even if other sites were disabled. As the Soviet attack threat shifted from long-range bombers to nuclear missles in the 1960's, the SAGE system became less strategic. However, parts of the system continued operation into the early 1980's. This film explains the national security threats of the 1950's and 60's that SAGE was built to defend against, shows the SAGE computer and network in operation and simulates how SAGE would react to an attack on the United States. Catalog Number: 102651595
Views: 203971 Computer History Museum
The EDSAC Replica Project -- Computer Conservation in the UK
 
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[Recorded: May 11, 2011] "Recreating a fully functioning EDSAC computer is quite a challenge, but our experience in rebuilding the Colossus computer gives us confidence and insight." - Kevin Murrell, Director and Trustee, The National Museum of Computing The Computer History Museum is very pleased to welcome Kevin Murrell to our stage for a lecture about computer conservation in the United Kingdom. Mr. Murrell provides an overview of the British Computer Society's Computer Conservation Society (CCS) and its restoration projects, including the EDSAC replica project, and the restoration of the Harwell Dekatron computer. The CCS has a twenty-year track record in successfully recreating pioneering computers. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was a general-purpose research tool at Cambridge University and also led directly to the first business computer. It is planned to recreate EDSAC in full public view at The National Museum of Computing at Bletchley Park. The project, which is expected to take three to four years, is being funded by a consortium led by computing entrepreneur, Hermann Hauser. EDSAC Facts: • EDSAC was based on the ideas of John von Neumann and others who in 1945 suggested that the future of computing lay in computers which could store sets of instructions (programs) as well as data. • EDSAC was over two meters high and occupied a ground area of four meters by five meters. • Its 3,000+ vacuum tubes used as logic were arranged on 12 racks. • Mercury-filled tubes acted as memory • It performed 650 instructions per second. • EDSAC ran its first program on 6 May 1949 and soon began nine years of regular service ending in July 1958 when it was dismantled to enable the re-use of precious space. By then it had been superseded by the faster, more reliable and much larger EDSAC 2. Professor Andrew Hopper, Head of the Computer Laboratory at Cambridge University, said: "EDSAC set computing standards for academia and commerce. It was so successful that in the nine years following 1949 it was used by Cambridge University researchers in studies such as genetics, meteorology and X-ray crystallography and even helped two researchers win Nobel prizes. EDSAC also led directly to the first commercially applied computer, the LEO, that broke new ground by enabling the catering company J Lyons & Co, Ltd to perform payroll calculations in 1953. " The recreation will be as authentic as possible and true to the spirit and technology of the time. Occupying a floor area of 20 square meters, the replica EDSAC is planned to be a highly visible display. The original had over 3000 electronic tubes (or valves) used for logic, mercury-filled tubes for memory, data input via paper tape and output on a teleprinter. Only the mercury-filled tubes are not planned to be recreated -- in compliance with modern safety requirements -- and will be substituted with a similar delay line storage technology. Len Shustek, the Chairman of CHM's Board of Trustees, joins Mr. Murrell on stage for the Q&A portion of this event.
EndGame: Challenging the Chess Masters
 
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An overview of the history of computer chess, focusing on the matches between IBM's chess-playing supercomputer Deep Blue and World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov. In 1989, IBM hired Deep Thought team members Feng-Hsiung Hsu, Murray Campbell and Thomas Anantharaman to develop a computer that would beat reigning World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov. Although Deep Thought lost to Kasparov in 1989, the match led the team to refine its software and add more custom processors. By 1996, it could examine 100 million chess positions per second, or about nine to eleven moves ahead. That same year, Deep Thought was renamed Deep Blue and met Kasparov for a best-of-six games match. In the first game, Deep Blue made history by defeating Kasparov--marking the first time a current World Chess Champion had ever lost a game to a computer in a tournament setting--but Kasparov bounced back to win the match with a score of 4-2. After defeating Deep Blue in 1996, Garry Kasparov issued a rematch challenge for the following year. To prepare, the team tested the machine against several Grandmasters, and doubled the performance of the hardware. A six-game rematch took place in New York in May 1997. Kasparov won the first game but missed an opportunity in the second game and lost. Kasparov never recovered his composure and played defensively for the remainder of the match. In the last game, he made a simple mistake and lost, marking May 11, 1997, as the date on which a World Chess Champion lost a match to a computer. There have since been two other matches between a computer and a World Chess Champion. Both have ended in a tie. Created for the Computer History Museum exhibit "Mastering the Game: A History of Computer Chess". Be sure to check out the online exhibit on computer chess at: www.computerhistory.org/chess Catalog number: 102651039
Human Computers
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" For centuries, “computers” were human beings—low-paid clerks doing simple math as part of a team performing complex calculations. Their humble work spurred advances in science, industry, national defense and, ultimately, in the invention of the computing machines that replaced them. Catalog Number: 102695595 Lot Number: X6142.2011
CHM Revolutionaries: Steve Jobs The Authorized Biography with Author Walter Isaacson
 
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[Recorded: December 13, 2011] From the best-selling biographer of Albert Einstein and Benjamin Franklin comes the authorized story of Steve Jobs, one of the most celebrated global business figures in history. Award-winning author and journalist Walter Isaacson enjoyed unprecedented access to Jobs and conducted more than 40 personal interviews with him over two years. In addition, he talked to more than a hundred family members, friends, adversaries, competitors, and colleagues. The result is a riveting story of the roller-coaster life and intense personality of a creator, entrepreneur and executive whose fierce drive and passion for perfection revolutionized personal computers, animated movies, music, mobile phones, tablet computing digital publishing and "apps." We are proud to welcome Isaacson for a conversation about Jobs' life, inspiration and legacy with Museum CEO John Hollar.
UNIVAC - Information Age: Then and Now
 
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[Recorded 1960] This humorous promotional film for the Remington Rand UNIVAC computer features J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in leading roles. Produced in 1960, the film outlines the earlier history of computing leading to the development and application of the UNIVAC computer. J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the major figures in the creation of the ENIAC computer, left the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Engineering at the end of WWII to found their own firm. They had hoped to be the first to exploit the new concept of the electronic stored program computer, but were hampered by a lack of funds and, to some extent, by the bureaucracy surrounding their only major customer, the Census Bureau. They sought other investors but never had enough to properly complete their projects. They eventually sold their business to Remington Rand (later Sperry Rand) who incorporated it as the UNIVAC division of the company. Eckert remained with UNIVAC all his life but Mauchly left after a few years to become a private consultant. Remington Rand's Univac Division produced some of the earliest commercially available machines ahead of more famous firms such as IBM. The large management structure of the company often frustrated their engineers, many of whom left to found other very influential computer firms (e.g. Control Data Corporation). This bureaucracy is thought by many (including their Vice President, J. Presper Eckert) to have eventually limited their ability to take advantage of rapidly changing technology and to lose the lead to other firms such as IBM. In 1955 the Sperry Corporation and Remington Rand merged forming Sperry Rand. Sperry Rand then eventually merged with Burroughs to from Unisys and is still in business. You can learn about computing history at the Computer History Museum website: www.computerhistory.org Catalog number: 102639862
Views: 102155 Computer History Museum
Secret History of Silicon Valley
 
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[Recorded: November 20, 2008] Today, Silicon Valley is known around the world as a fount of technology innovation and development fueled by private venture capital and peopled by fabled entrepreneurs. But it wasn't always so. Unbeknownst to even seasoned inhabitants, today's Silicon Valley had its start in government secrecy and wartime urgency. In this lecture, renowned serial entrepreneur Steve Blank presents how the roots of Silicon Valley sprang not from the later development of the silicon semiconductor but instead from the earlier technology duel over the skies of Germany and secret efforts around (and over) the Soviet Union. World War II, the Cold War and one Stanford professor set the stage for the creation and explosive growth of entrepreneurship in Silicon Valley. The world was forever changed when the Defense Department, CIA and the National Security Agency acted like today's venture capitalists funding this first wave of entrepreneurship. Steve Blank shows how these groundbreaking early advances lead up to the high-octane, venture capital fueled Silicon Valley we know today. Catalog Number: 102695046 Lot Number: X5082.2009
Views: 350129 Computer History Museum
CHM Revolutionaries: Facebook Effect- Author David Kirkpatrick & FB's CEO Mark Zuckerberg
 
01:33:54
[Recorded: July 21, 2010] The growth and impact of Facebook is mind blowing, even for an industry that considers "overnight success" to be a long-range goal. Founded in a Harvard dorm room on February 4th 2004 by 19-year-old Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook announced in July 2010 that had it reached the milestone of 500 million registered users. Facebook isn't just an American success story, most users are outside of the United States and half of them log on every day. Facebook has already made an irreversible impact on society, marketing and politics -- even facilitating political protests around the world in countries such as Colombia and Iran. Facebook is also changing our sense of identity: "I am on Facebook; therefore I am." Longtime Fortune magazine technology writer David Kirkpatrick chronicles the rise of Facebook in one of the most anticipated books of 2010: "The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting The World." Kirkpatrick gained the full cooperation of Zuckerberg and his team in writing the book. The Facebook Effect is the first historically authoritative account of how a simple idea became one of the dominant ways to communicate on the Internet. As part of its [email protected] series, the Computer History Museum is proud to present this one-of-a-kind evening of fascinating dialogue between Zuckerberg and Kirkpatrick on the past and future of Facebook. The moderator is Guy Raz, the Peabody award-winning host of NPR's All Things Considered. Catalog Number: 102702345 Lot Number: X5669.2010
Views: 282825 Computer History Museum
Jean Bartik and the ENIAC Women
 
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Jean Bartik, one of the earliest pioneering women in technology, talks about her memories of breaking into the then new field of computer science and working on the ENIAC in the 1940's The ENIAC and the story of the women behind it will be part of the upcoming Revolution exhibition at the Computer Science Museum in Mountain View, CA. Opening in January 2011, "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" will be the first major museum exhibition to trace the history of computers and information technology from the abacus to the Internet. More than 1,000 artifacts from the Museum's vast collection will be on view including rare computers, audio and video, photographs, games and hands-on displays. Updates on the exhibit can be found on Facebook at facebook.com/computerhistory, on Twitter @computerhistory and at www.computerhistory.org/exhibits/revolution
Cleve Moler - 2017 CHM Fellow
 
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Computer History Museum honors Cleve Moler for his creation and development of the MATLAB numerical computing environment and programming language. For over 25 years, the Computer History Museum Fellow Awards have honored distinguished technology pioneers for their outstanding merits and significant contributions to the advancement of computer history and evolution of the Information Age. The Fellow Awards are an extension of the Computer History Museum’s overarching vision to explore the computing revolution and its impact on the human experience. Lot number: X8299.2018 Catalog number: 102740203
SpaceWar!
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" In 1961, computers were seriously big, seriously expensive, and seriously serious. Then came SpaceWar! But this early computer game was not just addictive play. It ignited interest in programming on college campuses, pushed the limits of technology, and was a step toward interactive personal computing. Catalog Number: 102695600 Lot Number: X6142.2011
Birth of the World Wide Web
 
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CHM Exhibition "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing" Visionaries dreamed of computerizing and linking the world’s knowledge. But the dream was out of reach until Tim Berners-Lee created the scheme that made it possible. This is the story of the World Wide Web, from a concept once described as “vague but exciting” to a tool used by more than two billion people! Catalog Number: X6142.2011 Lot Number: 102695607
Man and Computer : A Perspective
 
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The film Man & Computer, made in 1967 by IBM's UK branch, provides a basic understanding of computer operations. A large portion of the film shows the ways in which a computer can be simulated by five people using the standard office equipment of the day. The film employs a number of different techniques, including animations, and features a few brief scenes of an IBM System/360 in use—just months after the first machines were delivered. Starting in the 1940s, IBM became a major producer of films used for sales, training, documenting business processes, entertaining at company functions, and educating the public. Several IBM films were made by respected filmmakers and sometimes featured well-known actors. Catalog Number: 102702984 Lot Number: X3604.2006
Views: 153209 Computer History Museum
Computer Pioneers: Pioneer Computers Part 1
 
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[Recorded: 1996] Part 1 of 2 The Dawn of Electronic Computing 1935 1945 Computer pioneer Gordon Bell hosts this two-part program on the evolution of electronic computing from its pre-World War II origins through the development of the first commercial computers. His narration traces the development of the stored program computer architecture which remains the foundation of todays modern computers. In Part 1 The builders of the first five computer machines: the Bell Labs Model 1, the Zuse Z1-3, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, the Harvard Mark 1 and the IBM SSEC tell their stories. Catalog Number: 102645565 Lot Number: X3169.2005
Views: 366017 Computer History Museum
The Origins of Linux—Linus Torvalds
 
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[Recorded Sept 19, 2001] Linus Torvalds, the creator of the operating system phenomenon Linux, tells the story of how he went from writing code as a graduate student in Helsinki in the early 1990s to becoming an icon for open source software by the end of the decade.
Views: 467126 Computer History Museum
CHM Live | Original iPhone Software Team Leader Scott Forstall (Part Two)
 
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[Recorded June 20, 2017] This is part two of two from the CHM Live show “Putting Your Finger On It: Creating the iPhone.” Watch Part 1—Original iPhone Engineers Nitin Ganatra, Scott Herz & Hugo Fiennes: http://bit.ly/2tluoLN Watch the Full Show—http://bit.ly/2sVP10E During 2006, the year before the iPhone was introduced, it seemed that innovation in mobile devices was beginning to slip away from Silicon Valley. Wireless computing was advancing more quickly in Europe than it was in the United States. That all changed abruptly when Steve Jobs stepped onstage at Moscone Center in San Francisco and asserted he was introducing “three revolutionary products” in one package—the iPhone. How did iPhone come to be? On June 20, four members of the original development team will join historian and journalist John Markoff to discuss the secret Apple project, which In the past decade has remade the computer industry, changed the business landscape, and become a tool in the hands of more than a billion people around the world. Lot number: X8247.2017 Catalog number: 102738283 © Computer History Museum
How Computers Work: A Journey Into the Walk-Through Computer, hosted by David Neil
 
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Recorded 1990 How Computers Work: A Journey Into the Walk-Through Computer is an educational video produced by The Computer Museum and hosted by David Neil of PBS's Newton's Apple. Join David Neil and his four young companions on an entertaining and illuminating trek through The Computer Museum's one-of-a-kind, two-story working model of a desktop computer. The Computer Museum in Boston, Massachusetts was the predecessor institution to the Computer History Museum located in Mountain View, California since 1996. Sadly, the walk-through computer did not move to California with the Computer Museum's collection, but as you can see from this video, it was a very engaging exhibit. Catalog Number: 102651194
Views: 183336 Computer History Museum
2018 Fellow Award Honoree Introduction & Remarks—Guido van Rossum
 
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Presenting the Fellow Award to Guido van Rossum is Drew Houston, cofounder and CEO of Dropbox. Lot number: X8621.2018 Catalog number: 102738784
The Amazing Open Source Projects on GitHub
 
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From software that allows Stephen Hawking to talk to Facebook & Apple code, GitHub CEO Chris Wanstrath explains the growth and impact of open source projects available to new programmers on the social coding site.
CHM Revolutionaries: Creativity, Inc- Author Ed Catmull in Conversation with Museum CEO John Hollar
 
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[Recorded: May 8, 2014] "Many have attempted to formulate and categorize inspiration and creativity. What Ed Catmull shares instead is his astute experience that creativity isn't strictly a well of ideas, but an alchemy of people. In Creativity, Inc. Ed reveals, with commonsense specificity and honesty, examples of how not to get in your own way and how to realize a creative coalescence of art, business, and innovation." - George Lucas As a young man, Ed Catmull had a dream: to be an animator and an artist. When he learned that he lacked the natural talent for hand-drawn animation, he turned to his other passion: physics, and then computing. That pivot eventually drove a desire within Catmull to make the first computer-animated movie. He nurtured that dream as a Ph.D student at the University of Utah, where many computer graphics pioneers got their start. He eventually forged a partnership with George Lucas—an alliance that led, indirectly, to his founding Pixar Annimation Studios with Steve Jobs and John Lasseter in 1986. Nine years later, Pixar released Toy Story, the first feature-length film created entirely on computers. It changed animation forever. Pixar has gone on, as of early 2014, to win 27 Academy Awards® for animated filmmaking. When The Walt Disney Company bought Pixar in 2006 for $7.4 billion, Catmull became the President and CEO of the combined Walt Disney Animation Studios. Thus, through his chosen route of physics, mathematics and computing, Ed Catmull realized his dream to be a Disney animator. The environment that Catmull and his colleagues built at Pixar, and continue within Disney, is based on philosophies that honor the creative process, strike a delicate balance between artistic storytelling and skilled engineering, and defy convention. In his new book, Creativity, Inc., Catmull reveals some of the secrets of Pixar's success and describes his own approach to inspiring excellence in a very large organization over the long term. Ed Catmull, a Fellow of the Computer History Museum, joins John Hollar for a conversation about how to build a sustained creative culture, nurturing both the technical and artistic "poles of creativity." Please join us for what is certain to be an inspiring evening with a true revolutionary. Catalog Number: 102740111 Lot Number: X7173.2014