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How was it made? The Art of Shoe Making
 
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How was it made? This film shows Emiko Matsuda from Foster & Son crafting a bespoke brogue. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/shoes-pleasure-and-pain/
How was it made? An Agate Teapot by Michelle Erickson
 
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In this video Michelle Erickson recreates an 18th-century agateware teapot in the V&A's collection. Michelle Erickson was Ceramics Resident: World Class Maker at the V&A, July -- September 2012
How was it made? A Puzzle Jug by Michelle Erickson
 
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Ceramicist Michelle Erickson recreates a puzzle jug from the V&A’s collection. These wonderfully infuriating devices hold an ingenious secret and were used in the 18th century for pub drinking games.
How was it made? Micromosaics
 
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The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Collection includes some of the world’s most spectacular Micromosaics. This film explores this astonishing technique through the recreation of a historic micromosaic, made from millimetre-thin canes of glass at the SICIS The Art Mosaic Factory. Learn more about micromosaics from the Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Collection: https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/gilbert-mosaics
Conservation: Flowers in a Glass Vase painting
 
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Flowers in a Glass Vase is a beautiful still life painted by the Dutch artist Jacob van Walscapelle in 1667 — the earliest known signed work by this artist. We don't believe that the painting has been treated since it was bequeathed to the V&A in 1900. Over time, the oil paint has started to flake, and the natural varnish has become discoloured. The painting is now undergoing thorough conservation work, which includes carefully reattaching paint flakes, removing discoloured varnish, applying new varnish and retouching. Transformed, the painting will go on display in Room 81 of the V&A Paintings Galleries. Find out more: https://www.vam.ac.uk/info/conservation
Conservation: The Wolsey Angels
 
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Diana Heath, Senior Metals Conservator at the V&A, describes the challenges of treating the Wolsey Angels – rare examples of copper figures created for the English Tudor court at the height of the Renaissance, between 1524 and 1529. The Angels were made by the Italian sculptor, Benedetto da Rovezzano (1474–1554), to adorn a magnificent tomb commissioned by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. After the English Civil War, the Angels disappeared, and were only recently rediscovered, having stood unrecognised on the gateposts of a stately home in Northamptonshire, perhaps for centuries. Not originally intended for outdoor exposure, their surfaces altered radically over time. The separation of each pair of Angels accounts for their difference in appearance, together with the loss of their wings. Extensive conservation work at the V&A has now enlivened the appearance of the Angels and ensured their future preservation. The Wolsey Angels were purchased with the support of the National Heritage Memorial Fund, the Art Fund, a gift in memory of Melvin R. Seiden, the Friends of the V&A, the Ruddock Foundation for the Arts, the American Friends of the V&A, and many other generous donors thanks to a major public appeal in 2014. Find out more: https://www.vam.ac.uk/info/conservation
Manufacturing plywood boards: then and now
 
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Plywood is a simple material made by glueing together thin sheets of wood, known as veneers or plies. These basic elements have remained broadly the same throughout its history. The most significant breakthrough in its production came in the early 1800s with the development of steam-powered machines that could cut veneers cheaply. The most influential of these was the rotary veneer cutter. The cutter rotates a log against a wide, horizontal blade, causing it to ‘peel’ into a continuous sheet of wood. This enables the creation of longer, wider sheets of veneer than previously possible and with little waste. Using these machines meant that plywood could be manufactured quickly and inexpensively on a large scale. This film shows the stages in manufacturing plywood boards in the mid-20th century and today. The process remains essentially unchanged, although today many of the machines are much faster and computer controlled. Produced as part of the V&A exhibition Plywood: Material of the Modern World (15 July – 12 November 2017) https://www.vam.ac.uk/plywood Sponsored by MADE.COM. Supported by the American Friends of the V&A Find out more about plywood with our fascinating exhibition book, Plywood: A Material Story https://www.vam.ac.uk/shop/plywood-a-material-story-148486.html
How was it made? How a Silk Painting was Made
 
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Recreating a figure from a Chinese painting in the gongbi style. Gongbi paintings are characterised by meticulous brushwork and highly coloured palettes. Chinese ink is made in a solid form, and needs to be ground and mixed with water. A full-size line drawing, known in Chinese as huago, is made on paper with a brush and ink. The outline of the figure is carefully drawn. A piece of silk is selected for its weave and texture. Raw silk is non-absorbent, so it needs to be treated in a process called sizing. A solution of glue and alum is used to make the ink pigments stick to the silk. The ratio of glue and alum must be carefully balanced. Too much alum makes the surface difficult to paint, but too little means that pigments will not adhere properly. The solution is spread with a flat brush. The silk is stretched over a board or stretcher with paste. When the treated silk has dried, it is ready for painting. The silk is placed over the drawing and the lines are carefully traced with ink. The artist can change the weight of the line by varying the pressure. Because silk is thin, colour needs to be built up through a process called tuose. An even layer of paint is applied to the back of the work. White pigment is usually used. Darker pigment is used for the dark areas. After the paint on the back has dried, the front is ready to be painted. First a base layer is painted. Colour pigments are prepared one by one. The painter carefully fills in the smaller areas. Two brushes are used to create colour washes. Layers of light wash are applied over painted areas until the artist gets the right tone. The process of building up colour and creating the right tone is painstaking and can take a long time. Fine details such as facial features and clothing patterns can now be added. The figure's outline is accentuated with black ink or colour for the final time. 26 October 2013 - 19 January 2014. Masterpieces of Chinese Painting 700 - 1900 brings together the finest examples of Chinese painting from the beginning of the 8th to the end of the 19th century, from small-scale intimate works by monks and literati through to scroll paintings over 14 metres long, many of which have never before been seen in the UK.
How was it made? Moulding a seat for Marcel Breuer’s Short Chair
 
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This film shows a contemporary version of Marcel Breuer’s Short Chair being made at the Isokon Plus workshop, London. A two part (concave and convex) mould is used to form the chair’s seat. Glued, cross-grained veneers are laid between the two parts which are then held together under pressure in a press. Once the glue has set, the seat is removed from the mould, ready for trimming and finishing. Produced as part of the V&A exhibition Plywood: Material of the Modern World (15 July – 12 November 2017) https://www.vam.ac.uk/plywood Sponsored by MADE.COM. Supported by the American Friends of the V&A Find out more about plywood with our fascinating exhibition book, Plywood: A Material Story https://www.vam.ac.uk/shop/plywood-a-material-story-148486.html
Conservation: The Salisbury Cross
 
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An ironwork cross almost 3m high was the uppermost feature of a magnificent screen in Salisbury Cathedral, designed by G G Scott and made by Francis Skidmore, erected in about 1870. The screen was taken down in 1959 and mostly sold, but the cross survived. Its surface was rusty and corroded, but small traces of original distinctive red paint and gilding remained. Painstakingly the cross was taken apart and each piece cleaned using dry ice, then repainted and gilded. Replacement parts were made using the latest digital technology. The restored cross was reassembled and is now a dazzling highlight of the ironwork galleries. Find out more: https://www.vam.ac.uk/info/conservation
Conservation: Spirit of Gaiety
 
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Made in 1904 by Hibbert C. Binney, the magnificent trumpet-playing angel statue, known as the Spirit of Gaiety, once stood atop the Gaiety Theatre in London's west-end, at the junction of Aldwych and the Strand. Years of exposure to rainwater had left her internal framework heavily corroded and woodwork weakened – urgent structural work was required to prevent her collapse. Follow Zoe Allen, Head of the Furniture Conservation Studio at the V&A, as she leads an extensive treatment programme to restore Gaiety, replacing the statue's internal structure, strengthening rotten woodwork and reinstating her brilliant gilded surface. Find out more: https://www.vam.ac.uk/info/conservation
How was it made? Traditional Indian Weaving
 
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Rajasthan Khadi Sangh is a weaving cooperative in Kala Dera, Rajasthan. There, cotton is spun and woven by hand using traditional tools and equipment to make cotton khadi cloth. Handmade textiles, are still a significant part of the Indian economy, providing work to millions. The V&A visited Rajasthan Khadi Sangh to watch how they turn cotton into plain-woven cloth. www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/the-fabric-of-india/
How was it made? Enamelling a brooch
 
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The video shows the enameller Jane Short making a brooch. Enamel is coloured glass. The glass is ground to a fine powder, then laid onto a metal surface and fired in a kiln at a great heat to make it melt and fuse. The design develops out of a series of rough sketches.
How was it made? Boulle Marquetry
 
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Boulle Marquetry refers to the inlay techniques developed by the French craftsman Andre Charle Boulle in the 17th century. Find out how this decorative technique is crafted.
How was it made? Korean inlaid lacquer
 
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Learn about the history of Korean inlaid lacquer and its two main techniques by Korean lacquer master Lee Hyung-Man. He won the prestigious title of the Important Intangible Cultural Property No.10 for lacquer inlaid with shell. The V&A holds one of the largest collections of Asian lacquerware in the world. You can see this object in our upcoming Lustrous Surfaces Display: https://goo.gl/deXDDE
How was it made? A traditional Korean inlaid lacquer box
 
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Watch as lacquer craftsman Lee Kwang-Woong uses traditional Korean techniques to create a beautiful box inlaid with delicate shell decoration
Enamelling
 
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This film, shot in workshops in Mumbai and Jaipur, illustrates the making of a pair of traditional enamelled earrings in preparation for kundan setting. www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/exhibition-bejewelled-treasures-the-al-thani-collection/
How was it made? Ari Embroidery
 
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The embroiderers at the Sankalan embroidery design and production house in Jaipur, Rajasthan, practise a variety of stitch techniques to embellish fabrics by hand. The V&A followed their work on a lehnga, a wedding skirt, from traced outline to finished product. Only by slowing the footage could the incredibly fast stitching of ari embroidery be captured, as professionals perform it so rapidly it is nearly impossible to see with the naked eye. www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/the-fabric-of-india/
How was it made? A traditional Korean lacquer vessel.
 
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In this film Chung Hae-Cho takes us through the laborious and intuitive process of making a lacquer vessel. While lacquer is usually applied to wood as a finishing technique, Chung Hae-Cho has developed a method of building an object primarily from lacquer. Many layers of raw lacquer paste and fabric are applied onto a mould, providing thickness and strength. Each layer is individually cured and sanded. The outer layers of coloured lacquer are polished to a high lustre, which continues to develop over time. This video is part of What is Luxury?, a V&A and Crafts Council exhibition, 25 April – 27 September 2015 vam.ac.uk/whatisluxury
Julia Margaret Cameron
 
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On the bicentenary of the birth of Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879), this film explores the life and work of one of the most important and innovative photographers of the 19th century.
How was it made? Woodcut Printing 1450 – 1520
 
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The invention of printing allowed books and images to become household objects. Both could be reproduced quickly and in large numbers, whereas before this revolutionary technology they could only be drawn, painted or written by hand. This film focuses on woodcut printing. Printmaker and artist Anne Desmet was commissioned by the V&A to make a copy of sheet of playing cards in the Museums collections. The orginal sheet of cards was printed onto paper with a woodblock. The sheet was then hand-coloured using stencils. The use of woodblocks to print text had been known in the East since the 8th century. In Europe the technique was first applied to textiles, but shortly after 1400 it was adopted also for images.
How was it made? Linen
 
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Linen's diverse use and dominance in Western fashion is no surprise. The rich soil and frequent rain of Northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands uniquely suit the flax plant, resulting in the highest quality flax and linen. While other countries, including China and Canada, do grow flax, the need for irrigation, fertilisers, and pesticides negates many of the plant's considerable environmental benefits. Today, the European Union grows 70% of all flax. Linen is the original sustainable fibre – when grown in its ideal geographical zone, the cultivation of flax produces no waste. All parts of the flax plant are used: the long and short fibres and seeds are made into textiles, paper, varnish, oil, animal fodder and bio-materials. After the plants have been pulled (harvested), the root remnants fertilise and clean the soil, thereby improving the productivity of soil for 6 to 7 years. Growing flax requires no irrigation, no fertilisers and no herbicides and pesticides, and therefore does not pollute rivers or groundwater. Flax even retains 3.7 tons of CO2 per hectare per year. From seed to fabric, sustainability characterises the production process of flax: Sowing: growing flax takes around 100 days. When grown for its fibre, flax seeds are sown close together to encourage the plant to grow upward rather than sideways, which maximises the length of fibres. Pulling: the plants are pulled when they are between 90 and 120 cm high. They are then gathered into bundles and dried for 2 weeks. Retting: the retting process separates the fibres from the plant. If flax is grown in the optimal geographical location, the fibres are separated through dew-retting in which thin layers of flax are spread out across grass fields to decompose. Water-retting is undertaken in drier climates, during which process flax is submerged in pools or water streams. The rotting of the plants pollutes the water streams, thereby undoing some of flax’s green footprint. After the retting process, the flax is fully dried. Scutching: the straw around the fibres is broken and removed. Combing: the flax is combed to remove any remaining pieces of straw and to align the fibres. The flax is then spun and woven into linen. vam.ac.uk/FashionedfromNature #FashionedfromNature
Wicked the Musical - Alexia Khadime discusses make-up
 
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Alexia Khadime discusses the make up process required to play Elphaba in Wicked. This takes on average about thirty to forty minutes to do using a water-based paint.
1920s Cartier Brooch
 
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Jewellery specialist, Geoffrey Munn and V&A metals conservator and gemmologist, Joanna Whalley examine and discuss a stunning 1920s Cartier brooch with an enormous emerald centrepiece of just under 40 carats.
Lesage and Balenciaga
 
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Founded in the 1920s, the French firm Lesage was known for its virtuoso embroidery. Like Cristóbal Balenciaga, François Lesage, who ran the house in the 1950s and 60s, wanted to introduce unusual materials into his couture. This film shows embroiderers at the Lesage workrooms today recreating the hot-pink beading and sequin work of Balenciaga’s 1967 evening coat. The design is marked out on tracing paper and perforated. A mixture of charcoal and resin is then applied to transfer the pattern onto the fabric. The embellishment is then added, layer by layer, to create a precisely gradated design of pearls, teardrop and pink feather-shaped sequins, with Swarovski crystals. 'Balenciaga: Shaping Fashion' is on display at the V&A from 27 May 2017 until 18 February 2018 vam.ac.uk/balenciaga
Josep Font, Delpozo: inspired by Balenciaga
 
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Delpozo's current Creative Director, Josep Font, creates volumes that abstract the body and are beautifully crafted in lightweight fabric and embellished by intricate sequin work. In this interview, Font talks about his sources of inspiration – including art, architecture, sculpture and the designs of Cristóbal Balenciaga, who he describes as a "maestro of structure and form".
How was it made? Carving a Printing Block
 
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An integral step in the block-printing process takes place before any textiles are involved. The carving of a printing block is in itself a highly skilled practice, requiring a team of craftspeople specialising in different stages of the process. The V&A filmed this process step by step, as craftsmen at Yaseen Wooden Block Makers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, turned a plank of wood into an intricately carved printing block. www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/the-fabric-of-india/
Champlevé Enamelling 1100-1250
 
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Between 1100-1250 specialist metalworkers flourished in the areas around Cologne (the Rhineland), Liège (the Meuse Valley) and Limoges (France). They supplied monasteries and churches with vessels essential for the rituals of the church, objects such as chalices, crosses, candlesticks, altarpieces and shrines. The technique of enamelling used intense heat to fuse glass onto a prepared metal surface. It allowed the metalworker to create brightly coloured images. Medieval enamellers used several different techniques but champlevé enamelling was one of the most common. The word champlevé means literally raised fields and refers to the way that beds were dug out of a copper plate to receive the powdered enamel. This film focuses on the champlevé technique. Enameller Phil Barnes was commissioned to produce a small plaque based on a detail from a reliquary chest made around 1180 in Limoges. The film highlights the key stages that were involved in producing champlevé enamel plaques. The basic process remains the same but medieval enamellers used kilns fuelled with charcoal and relied on their judgement when firing the enamel plaques.
Conservation of an 8th-century Egyptian Tunic
 
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Elizabeth-Anne Haldane, Textile Conservator at the V&A, describes the conservation work undertaken on an 8th-century Egyptian tunic, one of the exhibits to be displayed in the Medieval and Renaissance Galleries.
How is plywood made?
 
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Plywood's unique combination of lightness, strength and flexibility has helped revolutionise design over the last 150 years, but its manufacturing process has changed little. Taking you on a journey from tree to board, watch our animation to discover how plywood is made. Produced as part of the V&A exhibition Plywood: Material of the Modern World (15 July – 12 November 2017) https://www.vam.ac.uk/plywood Sponsored by MADE.COM. Supported by the American Friends of the V&A Find out more about plywood with our fascinating exhibition book, Plywood: A Material Story https://www.vam.ac.uk/shop/plywood-a-material-story-148486.html
Indigo Dyeing
 
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Derived from the leaves of shrubs in the Indigofera family, indigo dye has been used for millennia in most regions of India to colour yarn and fabric (especially cotton) in shades of blue. Indigo is a substantive dye, fixing without the help of a mordant, but requires expertise to successfully prepare and use. The process was demonstrated for the V&A by the Cheepa family, indigo dyers living and working in Kala Dera, Rajasthan. www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/the-fabric-of-india/
The making of medieval embroidery
 
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Medieval embroidery was a painstaking and precise art form, performed by skilled embroiderers – both men and women – mostly based in the city of London. This film shows contemporary embroiderer Rosie Taylor-Davies recreating a detail from a 700-year-old fragment of English embroidery. Working entirely by hand, she demonstrates the intricate process and skill of 14th-century embroiderers, who created some of England’s most beautiful and elaborate textile art. First the design is drawn out on paper and transferred to the fabric with charcoal in a technique known as 'pouncing'. The design is then embroidered using two techniques which were characteristic of English medieval embroidery: split stitch (shown here with white and coloured silk thread), and underside couching (usually silver or gold, as here). Opus Anglicanum: Masterpieces of English Medieval Embroidery 1 October 2016 – 5 February 2017 vam.ac.uk/opus
Gareth Pugh: inspired by Balenciaga
 
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London-based fashion designer Gareth Pugh is known for his experiments with shape and volume. He employs unusual materials that are difficult to work with, such as PVC and rubber, to make strong silhouettes. Like Cristóbal Balenciaga, he produces shapes that abstract the body. Here, Pugh describes his choice of materials and techniques, and compare's Balenciaga's signature sculptural quality with his own design aesthetic. 'Balenciaga: Shaping Fashion' is on display at the V&A from 27 May 2017 until 18 February 2018 vam.ac.uk/balenciaga
Introduction to the V&A
 
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The V&A is the world's leading museum of art and design, containing thousands of treasures from all corners of the world. The story of the Museum's foundation helps to explain its astonishing richness and diversity.
Molly Goddard: inspired by Balenciaga
 
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London based designer Molly Goddard draws on many influences: fashion photography, sketches by her sister and 1950s Cristóbal Balenciaga. Goddard is best known for her tulle party dresses, which closely resemble the triangular 'trapeze' shaped 'baby doll' dresses Balenciaga introduced in 1958. In this interview, Goddard creates a miniature version of one of her signature tulle dresses, while discussing how her work is influenced by Balenciaga's surprising use of scale and volume, and what she describes as a subversive "ugliness" in Balenciaga's clothing. 'Balenciaga: Shaping Fashion' is on display at the V&A from 27 May 2017 until 18 February 2018 vam.ac.uk/balenciaga
Learning from 'The Master': Balenciaga Deconstructed
 
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Known as 'The Master' of haute couture, Cristóbal Balenciaga produced some of the most influential designs in the history of modern fashion. We invited students from the London College of Fashion to investigate iconic garments by Balenciaga, deconstructing his processes and revealing secrets of their making and construction using digital pattern-cutting technology. 'Balenciaga: Shaping Fashion' is on display at the V&A from 27 May 2017 until 18 February 2018 vam.ac.uk/balenciaga
The future of fashion: Bolt Threads
 
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Using genetically modified (or recombinant) yeast, sugar, water and salt, Bolt Threads have developed a closed-loop process to bio-engineer a new protein fibre mimicking the structure of spider silk. It requires neither the polluting chemicals of petroleum-derived materials nor the land, water and pesticides of conventionally farmed fibres. In 2017, designer Stella McCartney teamed up with Bolt Threads to launch the first fashion collection using the new bio-engineered fabric. vam.ac.uk/FashionedfromNature #FashionedfromNature
How Was it Made? The Panton Chair
 
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This video shows the making of a Panton Chair. The Panton stacking chair was designed in 1960 by Verner Panton. In 1967 the furniture company Vitra marketed a version in fibreglass. The more recent model shown here is made out of injection-moulded plastic.
The future of fashion: Diana Scherer
 
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Diana Scherer trains the roots of plants to grow in intricate structures, creating a 3D textile. When the roots are fully grown, she removes them from the soil and cuts off the plant stems. The pieces produced are not yet suitable to be worn, but hint at a potential, more sustainable future in which we grow our own fashion in the ground. vam.ac.uk/FashionedfromNature #FashionedfromNature
Spotlight on V&A Jewellery Collections
 
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The V&A has one of the finest and most comprehensive collections of jewellery in the world. Over 3,000 jewels tell the story of jewellery in Europe from ancient times to the present day. Academy Award winning costume designer Alexandra Byrne, jewellery designer Stephen Webster, British Vogue jewellery editor Carol Woolton and V&A curator Clare Phillips reveal their highlights from the collection. http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/jewellery
How was it made? Making a Watchcase
 
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The video shows Martin Matthews making an outer case for an 18th-century watch. His family have been making watchcases for nearly 200 years. The watch and inner case were made in London in 1769. Martin Matthews will make an outer case.
Viren Bhagat: Jewellery Designer
 
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Jewellery designer, Viren Bhagat discusses his meticulous design process, the sources of inspiration behind his luxurious contemporary Indian jewellery and how the gems dictate the finished piece.
The Roentgen Commode
 
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The film shows the craftsmanship and technology of a Neoclassical commode by the German cabinetmaker David Roentgen. Visit the Europe 1600-1815 Galleries where over 1100 spectacular objects from the V&A’s collections of 17th- and 18th-century European art and design are displayed in a suite of seven galleries. vam.ac.uk/europegalleries
Making the Frida Kahlo mannequins
 
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Fashion mannequins play a vital role in supporting exhibition design, and evoking a sense of the wearer. Follow Conservation Display Specialist Rachael Lee on a design journey to create a bespoke visual interpretation of the iconic artist Frida Kahlo, unique to the exhibition 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up'. vam.ac.uk/fridakahlo #InspiredbyFrida Special thanks to Proportion London and Hans Boodt Mannequins
How was it made? The Daguerreotype
 
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Today only a handful of specialists create daguerreotypes, as the chemicals involved should not be used without the proper training and safety protocols. In this film Dr Mike Robinson creates a portrait using his own version of the technique. To create a daguerreotype, a silver plated sheet was given a light sensitive surface coating of iodine vapour. After a long exposure in the camera, the image was developed over heated mercury and fixed in a solution of common salt. As the image lies on the surface of a highly polished plate, it is best seen from an angle to minimise reflections. Find out more about photographic processes: https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/photographic-processes
Wicked the Musical - Dianne Pilkington discusses costume changes
 
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Dianne Pilkington discusses her costume changes in playing Glinda the good witch in Wicked. This involves nine costume changes, but only seven actual different costumes.
Christian Louboutin
 
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Shoe designer, Christian Louboutin, sketches another signature red-soled creation while discussing his early inspiration - the show girls of the Folies Bergères - and a love/hate relationship with his designs. www.vam.ac.uk/shoes
Conservation: Japanese Palanquin
 
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Follow V&A Conservators as they treat an elaborately decorated Japanese palanquin in our collection. Known as a ‘norimono’ in Japanese, meaning ‘thing to ride’, this box-like enclosed chair would have carried a bride of high social-rank to the groom’s home after their wedding. Conservation work included stabilising areas of lifting laquer on the surface decoration, which had been beautifully created using the ‘maki-e’ technique, meaning ‘sprinkled picture’. Now fully restored, the palanquin is on display in the V&A’s Toshiba Gallery of Japanese Art, for the first time in many years. Find out more: https://www.vam.ac.uk/info/conservation
1960s Rebels: Country Joe McDonald - Musician, Country Joe and the Fish
 
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The late 1960s saw progressive ideas emanate from the countercultural underground and revolutionise society. Challenging oppressive, outdated norms and expectations, a small number of individuals brought about far-reaching changes as they sought to attain a better world. Their idealism and actions helped mobilise a movement which continues to inspire modern activists and shape how we live today. A child of communist parents, ‘Country’ Joe McDonald spent a lot of time around Berkley, California in the early sixties – a hotbed of student activism later in the decade. There he played music with a number of groups before writing "I Feel Like I'm Fixin' To Die Rag", an anti-Vietnam song which symbolised the feelings of his peers toward the War. Performing at Woodstock Festival in 1969 he opened the song with a ‘fuck cheer’ – a moment and a word which unified the crowd in their frustration around their country’s politics. You Say You Want a Revolution? Records and Rebels 1966 – 1970 10 September 2016 – 26 February 2017 vam.ac.uk/revolution

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