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Transistor's Datasheet Tutorial

444 ratings | 81007 views
You'll learn to Identify a Transistor, understand the information described in a transistor datasheet, and learn the symbols used to identify the type of transistor.
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Text Comments (62)
Kantharaj P (4 days ago)
It is very help full to more learning
nepram1 (3 months ago)
please provide the data also
Alex Azazel (5 months ago)
WV591 (7 months ago)
need learn to Identify a japanes Transistor
Patnaik UC (1 year ago)
Great! Thanks a lot for the wonderful video.
idlando (1 year ago)
Excellent video, thanks for doing this!
R M (1 year ago)
Now thats a very thorough explaination. Thanks
Renato Morasutti (1 year ago)
The explanation was excellent. Thank you
stuartmp1974 (1 year ago)
thank you for putting all that information together. it was all well presented.
trickybilly (1 year ago)
Thank you
Airborne (1 year ago)
9:27 is where the information about the sheet starts.
pfifo fast (1 year ago)
so i guess a mosfet isnt considered a transistor as he never mentioned it. guess i should chuck art of electronics and go find something more up to date. They should change the name to mosfent since its NOT a transistor anymore
jelle komen (1 year ago)
pfifo fast You need to understand the concept of a transition more. This particular transistor has 2 kinds of operations like switching and current amplification. The MOSFET (Metal Oxide Field-Effect Transistor) can also switch, but amplifies voltages. Because this is a field effect transistor the leads are called different ( gate, source & drain). You should look it up in Wikipedia.
pfifo fast (1 year ago)
funny, cause ive never seen collector base and emitter on a mosfet datasheet. Hfe is critical to a bjt, but dosent exist on a mosfet. Fuck it, i doubt youll understand... What im trying to say here is this video is only covering 50% of the topic it claims to cover.
ESRepair (1 year ago)
A MOSFET is a transistor. They're called Metal Oxide Field-Effect Transistors. The video isn't about a specific transistor, it's about understanding the data sheet.
Vda Vda (1 year ago)
life saver, thank you for your work.
Will you please send me these slides?
snaprollinpitts (2 years ago)
that was the best explanation of a datasheet I have ever seen/heard, THANK YOU VERY MUCH !!!!!!! that's a Huge Thumbs UP and a SUB from me thanks again!!!!!!!!!!!
Sachin Singh (2 years ago)
Thanasis Athanasi (2 years ago)
There is something that i have not understood yet: for example in the BC547 transistor there are 2 sheets of graphs, but which should I use for saturation? and for what condition do each one refer to?
Muhammad Faisal (2 years ago)
Bart Hier (2 years ago)
Thanks fore this good video
David Guzman (3 years ago)
que buen video lastima que no puedo hablar ingles
Scott Anderson (12 days ago)
presione el engranaje en la parte inferior derecha y use las anotaciones, cambiando el idioma al español
amtpdb1 (3 years ago)
Hi: You mention that the base current is 120ma. You mention this is what turns on the transistor. Is this the minimum/maximum or......? What is the minimum current and voltage to turn this transistor on? I am looking to drive a mosfet with a arduino and that is why I am watching this. This would have been clearer if you had a diagram for each line you spoke about and when you start talking about it cutting off or on (hfe) at a curtain voltage or current, it would have been better if you would have given examples and stated what happens if it is above or below that which is shown. Thanks.
ESRepair (3 years ago)
+amtpdb1 your welome. -MrFixit
amtpdb1 (3 years ago)
+ESRepair Thanks for your response and suggestions. Great videos. Don
ESRepair (3 years ago)
+amtpdb1 The 120mA is the maximum required to turn on the Transistor fully ON and conduct the Maximum Current flow between C-E. The minimum Voltage between B-E in a single bipolar transistor is 0.7VDC but when using Darlington Transistors, like the one in the video, requires a minimum of 1.4VDC between the B-E. MOSFETs are nothing like bipolar transistors. My video "Testing MOSFETs" show how these FET transistors behave. I apologize but, you're watching the wrong video for MOSFETs. This video was to help understand the language used in transistor datasheets. Arduinos are similar to the BASIC Stamps that I use at home. The best things about using MOSFETs with PICM is the fact that 1) There is no connection between the Gate and the Source-Drain in MOSFETs, meaning you can connect your Arduino directly to the MOSFETs Gate without a problem; 2) MOSFETs have Very Low ON-state Source-Drain Resistance (typically 0.5Ω - 0.6Ω), and 3) MOSFETs have switching times in the nanoseconds (ns). I assume you're using an IRF510 Power MOSFET or similar? MOSFETs Data Sheets are somewhat different. MOSFETs are used Primarily as High Current switches (OFF-ON-OFF). Although the Arduino can connect directly to a MOSFET, I would recommend adding a 1A 50PIV diode like the 1N4001 in series between the Arduino and the MOSFET's Gate. In the event the MOSFET shorts or the Leads are shorted, the diode will protect the Arduino from the surge up to 50V. Use a higher PIV diode if needed. You will also want to add a 10K resistor between the MOSFET's Gate and Ground for the N-Channel MOSFETs or Gate and Positive for P-Channel MOSFETs. This will force the MOSFET to turn off when you want it off. The mentioned video shows why. I get enough back lash for making long videos, let alone adding examples. -MrFixit
Jacob Edward (3 years ago)
I'm having a hard time understanding the "Electrical Characteristics" section... The guy doing the tutorial said that for the Collector Cut-Off Current with the base at 0, "using at 30V, it's going to take .5mA before the current cuts off, that's how far it's going to drop down" What does he mean by the current cuts off?  Is that just the transistor acting like an open switch? For the Icbo section, I'm confused as to how there could ever be a situation where 60V would be going from Collector onto the Base... wouldn't that be the transistor being fried? When a transistor is referred to as an "amplifier", does that just mean it's a switch that can be toggled with a much lower current/voltage than what is actually going through the collector/emitter?  I'm not sure why there would be a "DC Current Gain" if it's just a switch being toggled by a smaller signal... is that just referring to what the collector/emitter can handle, not what is actually "gained" through amplifying some signal? What does it mean to have saturated the transistor?  On this datasheet, it says that the transistor can "sustain" 60V, but then is saturated at 2V when the collector is 3A and the base is 12mA... The Base-Emitter On Voltage is the voltage it would take to turn the transistor even though it would still only take 120mA?  So the example they gave was that when there was 3V and 3A being applied to the collector, it would take 2.5V (and 120mA) to turn the transistor on?
Jacob Edward (3 years ago)
+ESRepair Sent you an email through your site, though made a small typo in the first section so I just wanted to correct it here: I am using a derivative of Arduino and like I said, I'm really looking for some switching mechanism that will allow me to directly toggle circuits with the microcontroller... which means using normal digital logic (0-.8V for low/OFF and 2-5V for high/ON) on transistors or switch's of some kind (just like the relay module I mentioned).  Do you know of digital transistors that are rated across the spectrum (presumably 5-12V digital transistors would be cheaper than the more powerful 80-120V digital transistors)?
ESRepair (3 years ago)
+Jacob Edward When the transistor is in the OFF state there is a tiny amount of current called Leakage current. Bipolar transistors vary depending on how they are made and there purpose.  As in the Case with TIP120 at 30VDC the maxium Current leakage was 0.5mA while in the transistors Off state. The transistor itself can can handle a max of 60VDC. I assume you're using an Arduino or a BASIC Stamp PICM? You need something other than a bipolar Transistor for High Voltage and Current switching from a PICM. I have 2 BASIC Stamps that I use to run my House. There are other transistors that you can use like TRIACs, SCRs, MOSFETs, and especially Opto-isolators. TRIACs are used with AC, SCRs are for DC, MOSFETS are DC and Opto-isolators can be used in AC or DC circuits. MOSFETs and Opto-isolators work best to isolate PICMs from High Voltage and Current. You'll need to email me from my site at for-mrfixit.com with details as to what you are actually trying to do with the PICM So I can point you in the right direction. -MrFixit
Jacob Edward (3 years ago)
+ESRepair Do you mean to say there will never be over .5mA when the base is open and there is 30VDC from Collector to Emitter or else the transistor will be fried, or are you saying the transistor will reduce the current so that it will always be at most .5mA? Is there anything that would act as an ON/OFF switch for amplified voltage scenarios?  I'm looking for something that sorta acts like a relay, where a 5V DC signal can toggle a 250V AC signal... but is more for DC applications, this relay I've got is only rated for 30V DC and 10A.  I would like to find something that can toggle a circuit via a microcontroller, but not be limited to 30V DC and I thought transistors were the way to go, but now it seems like you're saying that's not possible... am I understanding you correctly?
ESRepair (3 years ago)
+Jacob Edward The Electrical Characteristics is a guide that shows the behavior of the transistor in different conditions. The Iceo Collector Cut-Off Current means when the TIP120 was tested at 30VDC, the current from the Collector to the Emitter with the Base Open (Iceo) had a maximum of 0.5mA (500µA) in the Transistors "Off State". It's not Current Cut-Off but rather Cut-Off Current which means the amount of current that can still flow during the Transistor's Off State. The Icbo Collector Cut-Off Current means when the TIP120 was test with 60V between the Collector and Base with the Emitter Open, a maximum of 0.2mA (200µA) is allowed between C-B in the Transistor's Off-State before damage incurs. When a transistor is used as an amplifier it has no ON/OFF state so it can't be toggled. The transistor stays active between the minimum and maximum ratings as the voltage and current fluctuates, as in analog signals. Transistors used as a switch can be toggled to be either On or Off and are used in digital logic circuits. The DC Gain refers to the transistor's amplification properties, For instance if a Transistor has an Hfe of 1000 and the B-E current was 1mA than the C-E current would be 1000mA or 1A, meaning the collector current would be a minimum of 1000 times that at the Base. This info is for Logic circuit apps but can be helpful in analog circuits for amplification. The Saturation voltage of the C-E refers to the Voltage needed for the Transistor to be Fully ON.when the Base current is at 12mA and the Collector current is at 3A. This info is only used when the Transistor is used in logic circuits. The Base-Emitter On Voltage states the maximum voltage required for the transistor to conduct 3VDC at 3A. This info is used in logic circuits. -MrFixit
Clyde Andrews (3 years ago)
thank you for your time.
Moggie20170000 (3 years ago)
thanks dude nice video
jorge daniel Villagra (3 years ago)
hola aca en mi pais no consigo estos transistores a1046 y el ecg 250 que me sugiere que ponga que tipo de transistor???? muchas gracias
Chetan Dewangan (3 years ago)
It is very good video and easy to learning steps.
Ceelo totheworld (4 years ago)
I've googled a fkv550 multiply times I still can't figure out if it's npn or pnp or where the base e/c is :( or what is a suitable replacement? Help please
George Foster (4 years ago)
It is a MOSFET, here is the datasheet http://www.datasheetarchive.com/dlmain/Datasheets-16/DSA-317203.pdf
John (5 years ago)
Genius - succinct.
ESRepair (5 years ago)
Thank you. There are videos about testing different transistors on our channel under videos. Was there something specific you had in mind? -MrFixit
Derek (5 years ago)
PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE Make More Video's Like This One!!! I hope you see this. I should have sent an email. Warm regards, Derek
ESRepair (5 years ago)
BJ11 is a Silicone PNP Low-Noise Audio Amp / Switch - TO92. It can be replaced with 2N3906. -MrFixit
victoriano abejo (5 years ago)
what is the replacement parts for BJ11
ESRepair (5 years ago)
Thank you, -MrFixit
danz409 (5 years ago)
in my opinion poor audio balance can make or break a video... it broke this one. time to find another source... D:
Mr. Oodles (5 years ago)
this is marvelous and helpful
ESRepair (5 years ago)
....The arrow on the Emitter indicates the direction current will flow from + positive to - negative. Watch my Testing Bipolar Transistors video to see how they work. -MrFixit
ESRepair (5 years ago)
A darlington transistor are 2 transistors of the same type (ie. NPN) connected in the way so the 1st transisor turns on the 2nd transistor. When a Positive current is applied to the Base, current flows thru the 1st transistor from Collector to Emitter. The current then flows from E to the B of the second Transistor, thus turning the second transistor on. This configurations allows the transistor(s) to increase amplification using a small amount of current thru the B than a single transistor. -MF
StaigeFright (5 years ago)
At 6:12 a darlington transistor is explained. The circuit shows 2 npn. If the base is positive, then the second one would never open up because the current passed from the first transitor would be negative to the base of the second transistor. Since the second transistor is also npn, the base requires a positive charge not the negative passed through the first npn transistor. I am confused! Should I quit learning this stuff now?
ESRepair (6 years ago)
You're welcome, amarasiri1970. Thank you for the compliment. I do have more videos in the works. -MrFixit
best transistor explanation,,very very help full video. Well done and thanks.
ESRepair (6 years ago)
Thank you, flyingfrancisco, for the compliment. Please Stay tuned. I am working on more Transistor videos dealing with testing and applications. -MrFixit
Francisco T (6 years ago)
The best transistor explanation on Youtube...bar none. Well done and thanks.
ESRepair (6 years ago)
No. Transistors for Direct Current doesn't use Peak to Peak or RMS rating. Only transistors that are used in alternating current like TRIACs and SCRs use p-p and RMS rating. -MrFixit.
ESRepair (6 years ago)
The Ads help pay for the videos we upload so we can help viewers with repairs. Kinda like watching tv now. lol. I'm sorry, erase erase erase. -MrFixit
ESRepair (6 years ago)
Thank you MrMac5150. -MrFixit
ESRepair (6 years ago)
Sorry, TheBigRedBubble, The camera I used doesn't capture sound that well. Thank you for the compliment. -MrFixit
MrMac5150 (6 years ago)
absolute maximum voltage, is that rating, peak to peak or RMS voltage.
MrMac5150 (6 years ago)
you inserted ads, oh know
MrMac5150 (6 years ago)
good one

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